Словарь терминов по стилистике английского языка




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, ,

See: , , , , ,
transference

перенос

act of name-exchange, of substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker’s subjective original view and evaluation of things, for the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/effect, instrument/result, part/whole, etc.) (V.A.K.)

^ See: ,
metaphor

метафора

of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one feature common to two different entities, on possessing one common characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common component in their semantic structures.

e.g. ”pancake” for the “sun” (round, hot, yellow)

e.g. ”silver dust” and “sequins” for “stars”

The expressiveness is promoted by the implicit simultaneous presence of images of both objects – the one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own “legal” name, while each one enters a phrase in the complexity of its other characteristics.

The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected – the more expressive – is the metaphor.

e.g. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass. (S. Lewis)

e.g. They walked alone, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate. (W.S.Gilbert)

Source:

••

a) the power of realising two s simultaneously

b) a when two different phenomena (things, events, ideas, actions) are simultaneously brought to mind by the imposition of some or all of the inherent properties of one object on the other which by nature is deprived of these properties

Source:

••

скрытое сравнение, основанное на ассоциации по сходству, осуществляемое путём применения названия одного предмета к другому и выявляющее таким образом какую-нибудь важную черту второго (I.V.A.)

e.g. … beams that streamed through the open window.

e.g. floods of tears; a storm of indignation; the apple of the eye, a leg of the table.

^ See:
, ,
personification

олицетворение или персонификация

a that involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”the face of London”, “the pain of ocean”

e.g. Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the civilizing of warfare. (J.Reed)

e.g. Notre Dame squats in the dusk. (E. Hemingway)

••

1) <троп>, который состоит в перенесении свойств человека на отвлечённые понятия и неодушевлённые предметы, что проявляется в валентности, характерной для существительных – названий лица (I.V.A.)

2) транспозиция, при которой явления природы, предметы или животные наделяются человеческими чувствами, мыслями, речью (антропоморфизм) (I.V.A.)

e.g. Roll on, thou dark and deep blue Ocean – roll! (G. Byron)

See: , ,
sustained metaphor

prolonged metaphor

a group (cluster) of s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)

^ Syn.: ,

metonymy

метонИмия

of names based on contiguity (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually existing relations between the phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of existence in reality but different semantic (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”cup” and “tea” in “Will you have another cup?”

e.g. ”My brass will call your brass” (A. Heiley)

e.g. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile. (C.Holmes)

••

is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and s, a relation based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent (I.R.G.)

••

- <троп>, основанный на ассоциации по смежности: вместо названия одного предмета употребляется название другого, связанного с первым постоянной внутренней или внешний связью (I.V.A.)

e.g. Give everyman thy ear and few thy voice. (W.Shakespeare)

e.g. the Crown (The Queen), cup (a drink), hand (a worker), cars full of moustaches (men), a beard (a man with beard), the Kremlin (the RF government)

^ See: ,
synecdoche

синекдоха

a based on the relations between the part and the whole (V.A.K.)

e.g. He made his way through perfume and conversation. (I.Shaw)

e.g. His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times’ sake, but because he was worth his salt. (Maugham)

••

- разновидность метонимии, состоящая в замене одного названия другим по признаку партитивного количественного отношения между ними. Например, название целого заменяется названием его части, общее – названием частного, множественное число – единственным и наоборот. (I.V.A.)

See:
,
{{==============================================}}
cluster SDs

a small group (cluster) of SDs, which

- operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two s;

- have humorous effect, and

- include:
or
or
, , , , ;

^ Source: , 48

See: , , ,
pun

paronomasia

play on words

парономасия, игра слов

simultaneous realisation of two s through

a) misinterpretation of one speaker’s utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym

e.g. ”Have you been Seeing any spirits?” “Or taking any?” – added Bob Allen. (Dickens) (The first “spirit” refers to supernatural forces the second one – to strong drinks)

b) speaker’s intended violation of the listener’s expectation

e.g. There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his. (B.Evans) (a punctuation mark instead of an interval of time)

e.g. There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.Shaw)

Source: , 48

e.g. The Importance of being Earnest (Wilde)

e.g. ”Bow to the board,” said Bumble. Oliver brushed away tow or three tears that were lingering in his eyes; and Seeing no board but the table. fortunately bowed to that” (Dickens)

••

близость звучания контекстуально связанных слов. (I.V.A.)

e.g. But still he strummed on, and his mind wandered in and out of poultry and politics, ... (Galsworthy)

Syn.: pun, paronomasia, play on words

See:
zeugma

зевгма

a cluster SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically

^ Source: , 49

e.g. He took his hat and his leave. (Dickens)

e.g. He lost his hat and his temper. (Dickens)

e.g. She went home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. (Dickens)

e.g. The Rich arrived in pairs and also in Rolls Royces. (Dickens)

e.g. She plunged into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room.

••

a) the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context, the semantic relations being, on the one hand, literal, and, on the other, transferred

b) the realisation of two s with the help of a verb which is made to refer to different subjects or objects (direct or indirect)

e.g. Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room. (B.Shaw)

e.g. … Whether the Nymph // Shall stain her Honour or her new Brocade // Or lose her Heart or necklace at a Ball (Pope – The rape of the Lock)

Source:

••

Английские авторы часто используют этот приём для создания определённого юмористического или иронического эффекта.

e.g. And now must come swift action, for we have here some four thousand words and not a tear shed and never a [u]pistol, joke safe, nor bottle cracked[/u]. (O.Henry)

e.g. Michael … suggested to the camera that it would miss the train. It at once took a final photograph of Michael in front of the hut, two cups of tea at the manor, and its departure. (Galsworthy)

e.g. Шли три студента, один – в кино, другой – в сером костюме, третий – в хорошем настроении.

Source: Комиссаров В.Н. – Слово о переводе. М., 1973

See: ,
semantically false chains

a variation of when the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases (V.A.K.)

e.g. A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Romanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering. (S. Leacock)

e.g. Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in white aprons. Miss Moss walked through them all. (A.Milne)

See:
violation of phraseological units

restoring the literal original of the word, which lost some of its semantic independence and strength in a phraseological unit or cliché. (A.V.K.)

e.g. Little John was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large. (Galsworthy)

e.g. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A.Tolkien)

^ See:
nonsense of non-sequence

joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence (A.V.K.)

e.g. Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome. (Y.Esar)

See:
{{==============================================}}

irony

ирония

- is a in which the contextual of a word is directly opposite to its

- is the not of the logical but of the ;

- is the contradiction between the said and implied;

- is subdivided into and ;

The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the evaluation, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualification and (much-much rarer) vice versa. The context varies from the minimal – a word combination to the context of a whole book.

e.g. The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence. (I.Murdoch)

e.g. Apart from splits based on politics, racial, religious and ethic backgrounds and specific personality differences, we’re just one cohesive team. (D.Uhnak)

^ Source:

e.g. It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one’s pocket.

See:
verbal irony

a type of when it is possible to indicate the exact word whose diametrically opposes its , in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction between the said and implied

e.g. She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. (J.Steinbeck)

e.g. With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds apparently hoping to ^ See him gag. (R.Chandler)

e.g. She’s a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has washed her hair since Coolridge’s second term, I’ll eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Chandler)

e.g. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I.Shaw)

Source:

Ant.:

See:
sustained irony

a) a type of , intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, formed by the contradiction of the speaker’s (writer’s) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical codes;

b) a number of statements, the whole of the text, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction between the said and implied.

e.g. Many examples are supplied by D.Defoe, J.Swift of by such twentieth c. writers as S.Lewis, K.Vonnegut, E.Waugh and others.

e.g. When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants’ lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.Waugh)

^ Source:

Ant.:

See:
antonomasia

антономасИя

type 1: a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun, i.e. a lexical SD in which the of a proper name is suppressed by its or the logical meaning acquires the new – nominal – component

e.g. He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary \[=any female\], shortly after she arrived, something ... (Th. Dreiser)

e.g. ”Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match”. I respect history: “Don’t you know that Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Caddilac, French fur trader”. (J.O’Hara)

type 2: (vice versa) a common noun serves as an individualising name

e.g. There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I don’t mean only my self, my partner and the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I’m referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air. (D. Cusack)

type 3: “speaking names” whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived

e.g. The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Something Somebody. (Priestley)

e.g. Miss Languish – Мисс Томней, Mr. Backbite – М-р Клевентаун, Mr. Credulous – М-р Доверч, Mr. Snake – М-р Гад (Sheridan)

e.g. Lord Chatterino – Лорд Балаболо, John Jaw – Джон Брех, Island Leap-High - Остров Высокопрыгия (F.Cooper)

e.g. Mr. What’s-his-name, Mr. Owl Eyes, Colonel Slidebottom, Lady Teazle, Mr. Surface, Miss Tomboy, Miss Sarcastic, Miss Sneerface, Lady Bracknell

Source: , 55

••

- особое использование собственных имён: переход собственных имён в нарицательные (Дон Жуан), или превращение слова, раскрывающего суть характера, в собственное имя персонажа, как в комедиях Р.Шеридана, или замена собственного имени названием связанного с данным лицом события или предмета.

^ Source:

See:
epithet

эпитет

the of the word to suppress its

- is the most widely used lexical SD;

- expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary;

- semantically there should be differentiated two main groups:

- s

- s

- s;

- structurally there should be differentiated: single epithets, pair epithets, chains or strings, two-step structures, inverted constructions, phrase-attributes

- <chains of epithets> or

- <phrase-epithets>

- or

Source: , 58

••

a based on the interplay of emotive and in an attributive word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterise and object and pointing out to the reader, and frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties

e.g. ”wild wind”, “loud ocean”, “remorseless dash of billows”, “formidable waves”, “heart-burning smile”; “destructive charms”, “glorious sight”, “encouraging smile”

Source:

••

1) экспрессивная оценочная характеристика какого-либо явления, лица или предмета, иногда, но необязательно, образная;

2) лексико-синтаксический <троп>, отличается необязательно переносным характером выражающего его слова и обязательным наличием в нём эмотивных или экспрессивных или других коннотаций, благодаря которым выражается отношения автора к предмету

Различают:

- постоянные эпитеты (conventional/standing epithet): lady gay, fair lady, fair England, salt seas, salt tears, true love;

a) тавтологические эпитеты: soft pillow, green wood;

b) оценочные эпитеты: bonny boy, bonnie young page, bonnie ship, bonnie isle; false steward, proud porter;

c) описательные эпитеты: silk napkin, silver cups, long tables;

- эпитеты частного характера выделяют в предметах и явлениях те качества, которые имею значение для данного мышления и не образуют постоянных пар

А.Н.Веселовский семантически делит эпитеты на:

a) тавтологические эпитеты – семантически согласованные эпитеты, подчёркивающие какое-нибудь основное свойство необходимое определяемого: fair sun, the sable night, wide sea, т.е. повторяющие в своём составе сему, обозначающую неотъемлемое свойство

b) пояснительные эпитеты указывают на какую-нибудь важную черту определяемого, не обязательно присущую всему классу предметов, к которым он принадлежит, т.е. действительно характеризующую именного его: a grand Style, unvalued jewels, vast and trunkless legs of stone

c) метафорические эпитеты – эпитет с обязательной двуплановостью, указанием сходства и несходства, семантическим рассогласованием, нарушением отмеченности:

[m3]- анимистические, когда неодушевлённому предмету приписывается свойство живого существа: and angry sky, the howling storm;

[m3]- антропоморфные, приписывающие человеческие свойства и действия животному или предмету: : laughing valleys, surly sullen bells;

^ Source:

e.g. Her umbrella blocked the sun’s rays but nothing blocked the heat - the sort of raw, wild heat that crushes you with its energy. (St.Lord – The Chapel)

See:
strings of epithets

chains of epithets

цепочки эпитетов

present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more

e.g. You’re a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature. (Dickens)

e.g. He’s a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (Dickens)

e.g. And then in a nice, old-fashioned, lady-like, maiden-lady way, she blushed. (A.Christie)

e.g. And the eyes watchful, waiting, perceiving, indifferent. (T.S.Eliot)

See:

Syn.: strings of epithets, chains of epithets
phrase-epithets

фразовые эпитеты, голофрaзисы

окказиональное функционирование словосочетания или предложения как цельнооформленного образования, графически, интонационно и синтаксически уподобленного слову (I.V.A.)

e.g. I-am-not-that-kind-of girl look; Shoots’em-down type; To produce facts in a Would-you-believe-it kind of way (I.V.A)

e.g. ”the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell” (J. Baldwin)

e.g. ”a move-if-you-dare expression”(J. Greenwood)

e.g. There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero business, so tough on the human nervous system. (A. Clarke)

^ See:
inverted epithets

reversed epithets

[p]colloq.[/p]

инвертированные эпитеты

based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun will help in doubtful cases

e.g. ”this devil of a woman” instead of “this devilish woman”, “the giant man” (a gigantic man); “the prude of a woman” (a prudish woman), “the toy of a girl” (a small, toylike girl), “the kitten of a woman” (a kittenlike woman)

e.g. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A.Cronin)

e.g. a doll of a wife (the wife is like a doll), an angel of a girl (the girls is an angel), a hell of a mess, a devil of a sea, a dwarf of a fellow, a horse of a girl, a fool of a policeman, a hook of a nose, a vow of a hat, a jewel of a film (I.V.A.)

e.g. a two-legged ski-rocket of a kid, a forty-pound skunk of a freckled wild cat (I.V.A.)

See:

Syn.: inverted epithets, reversed epithets
conventional epithet

standing epithet

постоянный эпитет

See:

Syn.: conventional epithet, standing epithet
affective epithet

serves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (V.A.K.)

e.g. “gorgeous”, “nasty”, “magnificent”, “atrocious”

See: or , ,
figurative epithet

transferred epithet

an that is formed of , , , expressed by adjectives (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”the smiling sun”, “the frowning cloud”, “the sleepless pillow”, “the tobacco-stained smile”, a “ghost-like face”, “a dreamlike experience”, “triumphant look”

See: , ,

Syn.: figurative epithet, transferred epithet
hyperbole

гипербола

a in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration

It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.

e.g. My vegetable love should grow faster than empires. (A. Marvell)

e.g. The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar.

e.g. Calpurnia was all angles and bones.

e.g. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (J.D.Salinger)

Source:

••

a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike
) to the object or phenomenon

- is a device which sharpens the reader’s ability to make a logical assessment of the utterance

e.g. He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face. (O.Henry)

Source:

••

заведомое преувеличение, повышающее экспрессивность высказывания и сообщающее ему эмфатичность (I.V.A.)

Ant.:

^ See:
understatement

преуменьшение

a in which emphasis is achieved through intentional underestimation (underrating)

e.g. ”The wind is rather strong” instead of “There’s a gale blowing outside”

••

is dealt with when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are intentionally underrated

It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.

e.g. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.Reed)

e.g. About a very small man in the Navy: this new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea boots. (Th. Pynchon)

Source:

Ant.:
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