Словарь терминов по стилистике английского языка




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See:
oxymoron

оксюморон

a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasise contradictory qualities simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”low skyscraper”, “sweet sorrow”, “nice rascal”, “pleasantly ugly face”, “horribly beautiful”, “a deafening silence from Whitehall” (The Morning Star)

e.g. ”The Beauty of the Dead”, “to shout mutely”, “to cry silently”, “the street damaged by improvements” (O.Henry), “silence was louder than thunder” (J.Updike)

e.g. O brawling love! O loving hate! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick heath! (W.Shakespeare)

e.g. You have two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc.Fitzgerald)

••

a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense (I.R.G.)

••

<троп>, состоящий в соединении двух контрастных по значению слов (обычно содержащих антонимичные семы), раскрывающий противоречивость описываемого.(I.V.A.)

e.g. And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true. (A.Tennyson)

e.g. He had a face like a plateful of mortal sins. (B.Behan)

See:
{{==============================================}}
syntactical level

include , , , , arrangement of sentence members,

The most conspicuous places in the sentence are considered to be the first and the last: the first place because the full force of the stress can be felt at the beginning of an utterance and the last place because there is a pause after it. (I.R.G.)

See:
, , ,
syntactical stylistic devices

syntactical SDs

include: sentence length, ,
, ,
, , , , , , one-member sentences, , ,
, , ,

See: , ; , , ,
one-word sentences

possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word- and the sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too, helps to foreground the content. (V.A.K.)

e.g. I like people. Not just empty streets and dead buildings. People. People. (P.Abrahams)

See:
,
sentence structure

структура предложения

Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on the position of clauses, constituting it.

@ loose structure

- opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units;

- less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation;

@ periodic sentences

- open with subordinate clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being withheld until the end

- are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose

e.g. Such being at bottom the fact, I think it is well to leave it at that. (S.Maugham)

@ balanced sentences

- subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end;

- known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writing;

@

^ See:
,

Source:
order of words

порядок слов

and
are used to convey the corresponding pausation and intonation in the written form of speech (V.A.K.)

See:
, ,
punctuation

пунктуация

Points of exclamation, points of interrogation, dots, dashes; commas, semicolons and full stops serve as an additional source of information and help to specify the of the written sentence which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation. (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”What’s your name?” “John Lewis.” “Mine’s Liza. Watkin.” (K.Kesey)

e.g. ”You know so much. Where is she?” “Dead. Or in a crazy house.” Or married. I think she’s married and quieted down.” (T.Capote)

e.g. The neon lights in the heart of the city flashed on and off. On and off. On. Off. On. Off. Continuously. (P.Abrahams)

e.g. ... a truth, a faith, a generation of men goes – and is forgotten, and it does not matter! (J.Conrad)

^ See: , ,
rhetorical question

риторический вопрос

peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement;

- does not demand any information but

- serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also

- serves to call the attention of listeners;

- makes an indispensable part of oratoric speech for they very successfully emphasise the orator’s ideas.

Source:

••

a) a special syntactical stylistic device the essence of which consists in reshaping the of the interrogative sentence;

e.g. Are these the remedies for a starving and desperate populace?

b) a statement expressed in the form of an interrogative sentence;

c) an utterance in the form of a question which pronounces judgement and also expresses various kind of modal shades of meanings, as doubt, challenge, scorn, irony and so on;

e.g. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? (W.Shakespeare)

- is generally structurally embodied in complex sentences with the subordinate clause containing the pronouncement;

- may be looked upon as a of ;

Source:

••

вопрос, который не предполагает ответа, ставится не для того, чтобы побудить слушателя сообщить нечто неизвестное говорящему, а чтобы привлечь внимание, усилить впечатление, повысить эмоциональный тон, создать приподнятость

e.g. Being your slave, what should I do but tend // Upon the hours and times of your desire? (W.Shakespeare – Sonnet LVII) – Для верных слуг нет ничего другого // Как ожидать у двери госпожу. (пер. С.Я.Маршака)

Source:

••

- contains a statement disguised as a question;

- usually a positive question hiding a negative statement. No answer is expected.

e.g. Can any one say what truth is?

e.g. Do we always act as we ought to?

e.g. What else could I do?

e.g. Who would have thought to meet you here?

Source: Кобрина Н.А. и др. Грамм. англ. яз. СПб., 2001. C. 307

See: , negative-interrogative sentences, , ,
{{==============================================}}
repetition

types: , , , or , , , ; ;

- is a powerful mean of emphasis;

- adds and balance to the utterance;

e.g. … there lived a little man named Nathaniel Pipkin, … , and lived in a little house in the little High Street, within ten minutes' walk of the little church; and who was to be found every day from nine till four, teaching a little learning to the little boys. (Dickens)

^ See: , ;
anaphora

анафора

(a . . . , a . . . , a . . . ,)

the beginning of two or more sentences (clauses) is repeated

The main stylistic function is not so much to emphasise the repeated unit as to create the background for the non-repeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded. (V.A.K.)

e.g. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Braine)

e.g. And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates. People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing. (P.Abrahams)

e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See

e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)

Ant.:

See:
epiphora

эпифора

(. . . a, . . . a, . . . a,)

the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated

The main stylistic function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence. (V.A.K.)

e.g. I wake up and I’m alone and I walk round Warley and I’m alone; and I talk with people and I’m alone and I look at his face when I’m home and it’s dead. (J.Braine)

Ant.:

^ See:
framing

рамка, кольцевой повтор

(a . . . a)

the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the “frame” for the non-repeated part of the sentence (utterance)

The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence, to concretise and to specify its semantics. (V.A.K.)

e.g. Obviously – this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W.Deeping)

e.g. Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (Dreiser)

See: or , ,
anadiplosis

catch repetition

reduplication

linking

epanalepsis

анадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык

(. . . a, a . . .)

the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one

The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics on a more modest level. (V.A.K.)

e.g. Now he understood. he understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a black man or a white man. (P.Abrahams)

e.g. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her. (A.Bennet)

e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See

e.g. So long lives [u]this and this[/u] gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)

See: , ,

Syn.: anadiplosis, catch repetition, reduplication, linking, epanalepsis
chain repetition

chain-repetition

(. . . a, a . . . b, b. . .)

several successive repetitions

The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning. (V.A.K.)

e.g. ”To think better of it,” returned the gallant Blandois, “would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character.” (Dickens)

e.g. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells and stagnation of B. Inn Alley. (D. du Maurier)

See:
ordinary repetition

(. . . a, . . . a . . ., a . . .)

(. . a . ., . . a . ., . . a . .)

no definite place in the sentence, the repeated unit occurs in various positions

The stylistic function is to emphasise both the logical and the of the reiterated word (phrase). (V.A.K.)

e.g. Halfway along the right-hand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with a dark brown settie beside it. (W.S.Gilbert)

e.g. I really don’t See anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (Wilde)

See:
successive repetition

(. . . a, a, a . . .)

a string of closely following each other reiterated units

The most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker. (V.A.K.)

e.g. Of her father’s being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (Dickens)

See:
synonymical repetition

синонимический повтор

the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly different nuance of intensify the impact of the utterance (I.R.G.)

e.g. ... are there not capital punishment sufficient in your statutes? Is there not blood enough upon your penal code? (Byron)

e.g. The poetry of earth is never dead … // The poetry of earth is ceasing never... (Keats)

^ See:
{{==============================================}}
parallel construction

параллельная конструкция

reiteration of the structure of several sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical “flesh”

almost always includes some type of lexical , and such a convergence produces a very strong effect, at one go logical, ic, emotive and expressive aspects of the utterance. (V.A.K.)

e.g. When a man wants to kill a tiger he calls it sport; when a tiger wants to kill a man it is ferocity. (I.V.A.)

••

- identical. or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession;

- is often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition) and conjunctions and prepositions (
);

- may be partial or complete (balance);

- is most frequently used in , and in , thus consolidating the general effect achieved by these stylistic devices;

- is used in different styles of writing with slightly different functions;

- carries, in the main, the idea of semantic equality of the parts (matter-of-fact styles), an emotive function (),

^ Source: :208

e.g. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aiming. (Cronin)

e.g. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up. (Harper Lee) – Суд совершенен лишь настолько, насколько совершенны присяжные, а присяжные совершенны лишь настолько, насколько совершенен каждый из них. (пер. Норы Галь и Р.Облонской)

e.g. I notice that father’s is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that father’s is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me. (Dreiser)

e.g. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure -- a ghostly couple. (V.Woolf)

e.g. So long as [u]men can breathe[/u] or [u]eyes can See[/u]

e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)

See: , , ,
chiasmus

reversed parallel construction

хиазм

a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses)

b) of the first construction in the second part (V.A.K.)

e.g. If the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order – SPO, the second one will have it inverted – OPS.

e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See

e.g. So long [u]lives this and this gives[/u] life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)

••

- a group of stylistic devices based on repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of words and phrases;

- reversed parallel construction, the word-order of one of the sentences being inverted as compared with that of the other;

- sometimes achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or vice versa;

- is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the second part of the utterence, which is opposite in structure;

- can appear only when there are two successive sentences or coordinate parts of a sentence;

- is sometimes used to break the monotony of parallel constructioins;

- always bring in some new or additional emphasis on some portion of the second part;

One cannot help noticing that the first part is somewhat incomplete, it calls for continuation, and the anticipation is rewarded by the second part of the construction, which is, as it were, the completion of the idea.

- contributes to the rhythmical quality of the utterance, and the pause caused by the change in the syntactical pattern may be likened to a caesura in prosody;

^ Source: :209-211

e.g. Down dropped the breeze, // The sails dropped down. (Coleridge)

e.g. As high as we have mounted in delight // In our dejection do we ink as low. (Wordsworth)

See:
, , ,

^ Syn.: chiasmus, reversed parallel construction
(stylistic) inversion

Inversion

(стилистическая) инверсия

a syntactical in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the predicate precedes the subject (complete inversion), or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair (partial inversion) (V.A.K.)

e.g. Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (Dickens)

e.g. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J.Conrad)

••

aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface of the utterance (I.R.G.:204)

e.g. Talent Mr. Micawber has; capital Mr. Micawber has not. (Dickens)

e.g. Down dropped the breeze … (Coleridge)

••

нарушение обычного порядка следования членов предложения, в результате которого какой-нибудь элемент отказывается выделенным и получает специальные коннотации эмоциональности и экспрессивности (I.V.A.)

••

- full inversion

e.g. Love he did her surely. (Th. Dreiser)

e.g. On the terrace stood a knot of distinguished visitors. (Huxley)

e.g. In one corner sat the band … (Huxley)

e.g. On the corner, waiting for a bus, had stood a young woman. (Buechner)

e.g. And only then will you truly joined the common European home … (David Atkinson)

e.g. Strange is the heart of woman. (S. Leacock)

- partial inversion

e.g. To a medical student the final examinations are something like death ... (R.Gordon) – Для студента-медика выпускные экзамены – смерти подобны ...

e.g. Money he had none.. (E. Gaskell) – Денег у него не было ни гроша.

e.g. Misty mountains they saw. (L. Sinclair)

e.g. This he knew very well. A pretty paradise did we build for ourselves. (Thackeray)

e.g. Terrible it had been! (K. Mansfield)

See: , ,
suspense

a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence with the help of embedded clauses (homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence (utterance) (V.A.K.)

••

a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of a communication in such a way that the less important, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the main idea being withheld till the end of the sentence (I.R.G.:218)

e.g. Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (Ch.Lamb)

e.g. Only when, after a few minutes, he \[the monkey\] ceased spinning and simply crouched in the pale light, bouncing softly up and down, his fingers digging into the carpet, his tail curled out stiff, did he start to speak to them. (Buechner).

See:
,
detachment

detached construction

a based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation) (V.A.K.)

e.g. I have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (I.Shaw)

e.g. I have to beg you for money. Daily. (S.Lewis)

e.g. She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R.P.Warren)

••

placing one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specific consideration of the writer so that it Seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.

The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a greater degree of significance and is given prominence by intonation.

^ Source: : 205

e.g. Daylight was dying, the moon rising, gold behind the poplars. (Galsworthy)

e.g. ‘I want to go’ he said, miserable. (Galsworthy)

See: ,
,

Syn.: detachment, detached construction
completeness of sentence structure

includes: , , or

^ See: ,
ellipsis

эллипсис

a deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence

e.g. What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop? (W.Shakespeare)

e.g. In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (Dickens)

e.g. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all one side. (Dickens)

••

omission of certain members of the sentence

- is typical phenomenon in conversation

- always imitates the common features of colloquial language

e.g. So Justice Oberwaltzer – solemnly and didactically from his high seat to the jury. (Dreiser)

Source:

See: ,
apokoinu constructions

apo-koinu constructions

Greek "with a common element"

the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective

- create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that;

- the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one;

Source:

••

the peculiar introducer or demonstrative construction whose attributive semi-clause has a finite verb predicate

- specific semi-complex sentence;

- formed much on the pattern of common subject overlapping;

- should be classed as a familiar colloquialism of occasional use; ^ Source: (Blokh)

e.g. There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson)

e.g. He was the man killed that deer. (R. Warren)

e.g. There was no breeze came through the door. (E.Hemingway)

e.g. I bring him news will raise his dropping spirits. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. … or like the snow falls in the river. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. … when at her door arose a clatter might awake the dead. (O. Jespersen)

e.g. It was you insisted on coming, because you didn't like restaurants. (S. O'Casey)

e.g. He's the one makes the noise at night. (E. Hemingway)

e.g. And there's nothing more can be done. (A. Christie)

^ See: ,
break-in-the-narrative

aposiopesis

апОзиопезис

“a stopping short for rhetorical effect” (I.R.G.)

- used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker’s emotions prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.K.)

e.g. You just come home or I’ll ...

e.g. Good intentions, but ...

e.g. If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months’ time ...

e.g. What I had Seen of Patti didn’t really contradict Kitty’s view of her: a girl who means well, but. (D.Uhnak)

See:

Syn.: break-in-the-narrative, aposiopesis
types of connection

include:
, , ,

^ See: ,
polysyndeton

многосоюзие, полисиндетон

repeated use of conjunctions

- is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences

e.g. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed. (A.Tolkien)

e.g. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot. (Dickens)

Source:

••

the of connecting sentences, or phrases, or syntagms, or words by using connectives (mostly conjunctions and prepositions) before each component part

- makes an utterance more ical; so much so that prose may even Seem like verse

- has a disintegrating function (generally combines homogeneous elements of thought into one whole resembling enumeration);

- causes each member of a string of facts to stand out conspicuously unlike , which integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole

e.g. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. (Dickens)

Source:

Ant.:

^ See: , , ,
asyndeton

асИндетон

deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words

- helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (V.A.K.)

e.g. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (Dickens)

e.g. It \[a provincial city\] is full of dirty blank spaces, high black walls, a gas holder, a tall chimney, a main road that shakes with dust and lorries. (J.Osborne - Entertainer)

••

connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign, becomes a , if there is deliberate omission of the connective where it is generally expected to be according to the norms of the literary language (I.R.G.)

e.g. Soames turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing before an open grave, watching a coffin slowly lowered. (Galsworthy)

Ant.:


See: ,
attachment

separating the second part of the utterance from the first one by full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong (V.A.K.)

e.g. It wasn’t his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan’t beg. I shall simply starve. (S.Lewis)

e.g. Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent. (T.Capote)

e.g. He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few reservations. (D.Uhnak)

See: , ,
,
{{==============================================}}
lexico-syntactical stylistic devices

lexico-syntactical SDs

certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.)

- include: , , , , ,


^ See: , , ,
antithesis

антитеза

a semantically complicated
, the two parts of which are semantically opposite to each other

- is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical unity of two (or more) opposing features. (V.A.K.)

e.g. Some people have much to live on, and little to live for. (Wilde)

e.g. If we don’t know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it. (A.Christie)

e.g. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband. (S.Lewis)

e.g. In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man. (S.Evans)

e.g. Don’t use big words. They mean so little. (Wilde)

••

- stylistic opposition, based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs

e.g. saint – devil, reign – serve, hell – heaven, youth – age, fiery – frosty

The words involved in the opposition do not display any additional nuance of caused by being opposed one to another.

- is generally moulded in
;

- is often signalled by the introductory connective but, when so, the other structural signal, the parallel arrangement, may not be evident, it may be unnecessary;

- a device, bordering between stylistics and logic;

It is essential to distinguish between antithesis and what is termed contrast. Contrast is a literary (not a linguistic) device based on logical opposition between the phenomena set one against another.

- has the following basic functions: rhythm-forming (because of the parallel arrangement on which it is founded); copulative; dissevering; comparative

Source: :222-224

••

стилистическая фигура, усиливающая выразительность за счёт столкновения (противопоставления) в одном контексте прямо противоположных понятий и образов (I.V.A.)

^ See: ,
,
climax

gradation

нарастание

a semantically complicated
, in which each next word combination (clause, sentence) is logically more important or emotionally stronger and more explicit (V.A.K.)

Three types:

@ logical climax

a three-step (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (V.A.K.)

••

is based on the relative importance of the component parts looked at from the point of view of the concepts embodied in them (I.R.G.)

e.g. Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die! (Dickens)

e.g. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had no knowledge of the brightness outside. (Dickens)

e.g. For that one instant there was no one else in the room, in the house, in the world, besides themselves. (M.Wilson)

@ emotive climax

a two-step , in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an intensifier (V.A.K.)

••

is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with (I.R.G.)

e.g. He was so helpless, so very helpless. (W.Deeping)

e.g. She felt better, immensely better. (W.Deeping)

e.g. I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy. (Dickens)

@ quantitative climax

an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (I.R.G.)

e.g. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. (S.Maugham)

e.g. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question. (Dickens)

@

e.g. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it was everything else of that sort in the highest degree. (Dickens)

e.g. I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed. (B.Charlestone)

e.g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned. (J. Galsworthy)

••

an arrangement of sentences (or of the homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a gradual increase in significance importance, or emotional tension in the utterance (I.R.G.:219)

••

расположение слов и выражений в порядке возрастающего их значения (I.V.A.)

^ Syn.: climax, gradation

Ant.:

See:
, ,
anticlimax

антиклимакс, спад

a suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised idea (V.A.K.)

e.g. It was appalling – and soon forgotten. (Galsworthy)

e.g. He was unconsolable – for an afternoon. (Galsworthy)

e.g. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except the obvious. (Wilde)

Ant.:

See:
simile

сравнение

an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes on the grounds of similarity of some quality

The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are connected by one of the following link words: “like”, “as”, “as though”, “as if”, “as like”, “such as”, “as ... as”, etc.

e.g. She is like a rose.

e.g. He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent. (J.Reed)

e.g. His muscles are hard as rock. (T.Capote)

e.g. The conversation she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire. (T.Capote)

Source:

••

characterisation of one object by bringing it into contact with another object belonging to an entirely different class of things

- excludes all the properties of the two objects except one which is made common to them;

- forcibly set one object against another regardless of the fact that they may be completely alien to each other;

e.g. Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare. (Byron)

e.g. Other words live but a short time and are like bubbles on the surface of water – they disappear leaving no trace of their existence. (I.R.G.)

e.g. His mind was restless, but it worked perversely and thoughts jerked through his brain like the misfirings of a defective carburettor. (S.Maugham)

e.g. It was that moment of the year when the countryside Seems to faint from its own loveliness, from the intoxication of tis scents and sounds. (Galsworthy)

^ Source:

Compare:

See: , or
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

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