Методическая разработка по английскому языку




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ВАРИАНТ 3

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимания на разные значения слов – it, that,one.

  1. That was an important discovery.

  2. It is not difficult to master English, but you must work regularly.

  3. To determinate the density of a body one must know its mass and its volume.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский зык, обращая внимания на функцию инфинитива и инфинитивного оборота.

  1. We know geology to play an important part in the discovery of coal and other mineral deposits.

  2. The problem to be discussed is connected with the city water supply system.

  3. A new plan is supposed to be constructed far from this town.

  4. We wanted him to take it into consideration.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на функцию герундия.

  1. I am fond of reading.

  2. There are different ways of solving this problem.

  3. You will improve your pronunciation by reading aloud every day.

  4. Skating is pleasant.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Pollution

The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems we face.

As the pollution of large cities like London, Bir­mingham and Manchester continues to grow, the pollution problems get worse.

The air in many towns and cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. Water pollution has been a serious problem for many British rivers. Since 1950 the amount of annually renewable fresh water available for human being has fallen by more than half.

High-rise blocks become prisons for the people who live in them.

We throw out a great deal of valuable materials. Paper, glass, metal and plastics can all be recycled.

The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. They need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside. Traffic in our cities is getting worse and worse.

If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in.

  1. Перепишите вопросы и дайте письменные ответы.

  1. Do the pollution problems get worse?

  2. Water pollution has been a serious problem in many British rivers, hasn’t it?

  3. What is getting worse all the time?

  4. What materials can be recycled?

ВАРИАНТ 4

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимания на разные значения слов – it, that,one.

  1. Copper is one of the metals used in the prehistoric times.

  2. It is indeed very difficult to give a definition of science that will be as broad as we should like.

  3. Coal is very useful mineral. We derive various products from it.

  4. This text is much more difficult than the one we translated yesterday.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский зык, обращая внимания на функцию инфинитива и инфинитивного оборота.

  1. He was saving money to travel about the country.

  2. The new electronic digital computers to be employed at our enterprises will have a great influence on the work of the industrial engineer.

  3. Physical, economic and business system are known to have technical and human aspects.

  4. Everybody knows Tsiolkovsky to be one of the greatest scientists of his time.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на функцию герундия.

  1. He is proud of having won the first place in the chess tournament.

  2. He has no objection to being sent there.

  3. This delegation arrived in Moscow with the object of conducting trade negotiation.

  4. The negotiations are still far from being ended.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


Earth’s Most Precious Resource

Over the last 300 years, world population has increased sevenfold, but water
use has increased by 35 times. Since 1950, the amount of annually renewable
fresh water available per human being has fallen by more than half.

While domestic users in rich countries tend to be wasteful in their use of water, regarding it as essentially free and plentiful, they play only a small part in total water use. On the other hand, the quality of water needed for domestic use is much higher than that needed for industry or farming.

Although 70% of the Earth is covered by seawater and about 3% by ice, neither of these is easily transformed into usable water. Less than 1% of the Earth’s total water resources are usable for drinking, farming or industry.

As a general rule, 80 litres of water per person a day are enough for a reasonable quality of life, but the regional differences are considerable. An American uses 400 litres, while an inhabitant of Burundi may have to survive on 10 litres or less.

Consumption is much higher where pipelines are laid than in regions where water has to be carried from a well. Thus the provision of piped water services – greatly increases water use.

It is difficult to establish precise figures for safe drinking water, but it is thought that 1.3 billion people worldwide do not have this basic service. Not surprisingly, the problem is much worse in rural areas than in towns. Dirty water is the world’s biggest health risk. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 10 million people died annually from polluted drinking water from the beginning of the 1990s.

  1. Перепишите вопросы и дайте письменные ответы.

  1. What does WHO mean?

  2. How much has water use increased?

  3. What did WHO estimate?

  4. What is the Earth most precious resource?

ВАРИАНТ 5

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимания на разные значения слов – it, that,one.

  1. This dictionary is very large, show me a smaller one.

  2. That happened the year when I entered when institute.

  3. It is expected that the English delegation will come here tomorrow.

  4. A car is our friend; it gives us comfort while travelling.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский зык, обращая внимания на функцию инфинитива и инфинитивного оборота.

  1. Modern systems are known to be complex and varied.

  2. The problem to be studied can be simplified by the use of controlled experimental conditions.

  3. He is not likely to come today.

  4. They seem not to know this subject.

  1. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на функцию герундия.

  1. After sleeping for about an hour, he was awakened by a loud noise in the street.

  2. He is proud of having been appointed to this post.

  3. We insisted on the contract being signed.

  4. A thermometer is an instrument for measuring temperature

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


Environment

The modern world faces many major problems to which there are no easy solutions. These include unemployment, health, over-population and of course the environment. All influence our lives, but the environment is really the most important. There are urgent issues that need to be solved including global warming, pollution and the loss of species. But there is no clearly seen global move to deal with these problems. Also, changes in the environment have a direct impact on the whole planet. The climate change and destruction of ecosystems can endanger the life on the planet if not dealt with quickly and at an international level. Environmental issues affect the actual existence of life itself. If we want our children to live in the same world we live in, or in a better and healthier world, we are to learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from pollution. If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in. It is clear, therefore, that protecting the environment is the most important problem facing the world today.

  1. Перепишите вопросы и дайте письменные ответы.

  1. The modern world faces many problems, doesn’t it?

  2. What are the urgent issues that need to be solved?

  3. What changes in the environment have a direct impact on the whole planet?

  4. What endangers the life on the planet?

^ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №4

Для правильного выполнения контрольной работы №4 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному преподавателем учебнику.

  1. Условные предложения

  2. Обороты, равнозначные придаточные предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот; субъектный инфинитивный оборот; независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.

ВАРИАНТ 1

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

  1. If the new technology had not been introduced labour productivity would not have been raised.

  2. If he were here he would help us.

  3. If I saw him tomorrow I should ask him about it.

  4. If he had been here yesterday he could have helped us

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.

  1. Using the atomic energy for peaceful purposes we contribute to science development.

  2. Man has been trying to make life easier for many centuries, with machines and instruments being invented by him.

  3. All the questions discussed at the conference last month have now been decided.

  4. Many forests in the north of European Russia and Far East are under threat, numerous species of animals and plants disappearing.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

  1. We want atomic energy to be used for peaceful construction.

  2. Glass is said to have been invented 2.000 years ago.

  3. My father wanted me to become an engineer.

  4. I like people to tell the truth.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст

The First Computer Development

The first suggestion that a machine for mathematical computation could be built, was made more than a hundred years ago by mathe­matician Charles Babbage. We now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles of modern digital computers.

Babbage was born in Devonshire, England, in 1792. He did not receive a good education, but he taught himself mathematics so well that when he went to Cambridge he found that he knew more algebra than his tutor.

At that time mathematics in Cambridge was still under the influence of Newton and was quite unaffected by the contemporary developments on the Continent.

Babbage was outstanding among his contemporaries because he insisted on the practical application of science and mathematics.

In 1833 he began to think of building a machine which was, in fact, the first universal digital computer. Babbage devoted the rest of his life to an attempt to develop it. He had to finance the whole of the work himself, and he was only able to finish part of the machine though he prepared thousands of detailed drawings from which it could be made.

Babbage wrote more than eighty books and papers, but he was misunderstood by his contemporaries and died a disappointed man in 1871. He tried to solve by himself and with his own resources a series of problems which in the end required the united efforts of two genera­tions of engineers.

After his death his son continued his work and built part of an arithmetic unit which printed out its results directly on paper.

  1. Перепишите вопросы и дайте письменные ответы

  1. Who invented the first machine for mathematical computation?

  2. When and where was Babbage born?

  3. How many books and papers did Babbage write?

  4. Was Babbage understood by his contemporaries?

ВАРИАНТ 2

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

  1. If Peter had been told about the meeting yesterday, he would have attended it.

  2. If I were you I should never come here.

  3. If you suppose that I am coming with you, you are greatly mistaken.

  4. I am sure he won’t be displeased if we take his dictionary.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.

  1. There being a severe storm at sea, the steams could not leave port.

  2. Our students studying chemistry made a lot of experiments in the university laboratories.

  3. Having completed the experiment we could go home.

  4. The signal given, the train started.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

  1. Coal is likely to remain one of the most important fuels in industry.

  2. We know geology to play an important part in the discovery of coal and other minerals deposits.

  3. I suppose him to be about fifty.

  4. The water seems to be boiling.

  1. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст

Computers

When Charles Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambri­dge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812, be could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves in today. Nearly everything we do in the modern world is helped, or even controlled, by computers, the complicated descendants of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more exten­sively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better me­mories and can store huge amounts of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time taken by a human mathematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but an advanced computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They pay wages, reserve se­ats on planes, control machines in factories, work out tomorrow’s weather, and even play chess, write poetry, or compose music. There are also systems being developed to translate articles from foreign magazines by computer, and to make up many lists of information that are needed in a modern library.

So computers can help us to deal with the knowledge explosi­on in many ways.

  1. Перепишите вопросы и дайте письменные ответы.

  1. When was the first calculating machine invented?

  2. How many sums in one second can computers do?

  3. Can computers help us to deal with the knowledge explosion?

  4. Computers are being used more and more extensively, aren’t they?
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