Скачать 312.93 Kb.
The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems we face.
As the pollution of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, the pollution problems get worse.
The air in many towns and cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. Water pollution has been a serious problem for many British rivers. Since 1950 the amount of annually renewable fresh water available for human being has fallen by more than half.
High-rise blocks become prisons for the people who live in them.
We throw out a great deal of valuable materials. Paper, glass, metal and plastics can all be recycled.
The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. They need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside. Traffic in our cities is getting worse and worse.
If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in.
Earth’s Most Precious Resource
Over the last 300 years, world population has increased sevenfold, but water
use has increased by 35 times. Since 1950, the amount of annually renewable
fresh water available per human being has fallen by more than half.
While domestic users in rich countries tend to be wasteful in their use of water, regarding it as essentially free and plentiful, they play only a small part in total water use. On the other hand, the quality of water needed for domestic use is much higher than that needed for industry or farming.
Although 70% of the Earth is covered by seawater and about 3% by ice, neither of these is easily transformed into usable water. Less than 1% of the Earth’s total water resources are usable for drinking, farming or industry.
As a general rule, 80 litres of water per person a day are enough for a reasonable quality of life, but the regional differences are considerable. An American uses 400 litres, while an inhabitant of Burundi may have to survive on 10 litres or less.
Consumption is much higher where pipelines are laid than in regions where water has to be carried from a well. Thus the provision of piped water services – greatly increases water use.
It is difficult to establish precise figures for safe drinking water, but it is thought that 1.3 billion people worldwide do not have this basic service. Not surprisingly, the problem is much worse in rural areas than in towns. Dirty water is the world’s biggest health risk. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 10 million people died annually from polluted drinking water from the beginning of the 1990s.
The modern world faces many major problems to which there are no easy solutions. These include unemployment, health, over-population and of course the environment. All influence our lives, but the environment is really the most important. There are urgent issues that need to be solved including global warming, pollution and the loss of species. But there is no clearly seen global move to deal with these problems. Also, changes in the environment have a direct impact on the whole planet. The climate change and destruction of ecosystems can endanger the life on the planet if not dealt with quickly and at an international level. Environmental issues affect the actual existence of life itself. If we want our children to live in the same world we live in, or in a better and healthier world, we are to learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from pollution. If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in. It is clear, therefore, that protecting the environment is the most important problem facing the world today.
Для правильного выполнения контрольной работы №4 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному преподавателем учебнику.
The First Computer Development
The first suggestion that a machine for mathematical computation could be built, was made more than a hundred years ago by mathematician Charles Babbage. We now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles of modern digital computers.
Babbage was born in Devonshire, England, in 1792. He did not receive a good education, but he taught himself mathematics so well that when he went to Cambridge he found that he knew more algebra than his tutor.
At that time mathematics in Cambridge was still under the influence of Newton and was quite unaffected by the contemporary developments on the Continent.
Babbage was outstanding among his contemporaries because he insisted on the practical application of science and mathematics.
In 1833 he began to think of building a machine which was, in fact, the first universal digital computer. Babbage devoted the rest of his life to an attempt to develop it. He had to finance the whole of the work himself, and he was only able to finish part of the machine though he prepared thousands of detailed drawings from which it could be made.
Babbage wrote more than eighty books and papers, but he was misunderstood by his contemporaries and died a disappointed man in 1871. He tried to solve by himself and with his own resources a series of problems which in the end required the united efforts of two generations of engineers.
After his death his son continued his work and built part of an arithmetic unit which printed out its results directly on paper.
When Charles Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812, be could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves in today. Nearly everything we do in the modern world is helped, or even controlled, by computers, the complicated descendants of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better memories and can store huge amounts of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time taken by a human mathematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but an advanced computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They pay wages, reserve seats on planes, control machines in factories, work out tomorrow’s weather, and even play chess, write poetry, or compose music. There are also systems being developed to translate articles from foreign magazines by computer, and to make up many lists of information that are needed in a modern library.
So computers can help us to deal with the knowledge explosion in many ways.
Методическая разработка по дисциплине «Английский язык» по разделам «Фонетика. Грамматика» для студентов очного и заочного отделений...
Из истории древних искусств. Часть I: Методические материалы к практическим занятиям по английскому языку / Сост. Дмитриева Е. В....
Методическая разработка может быть как индивидуальной, так и коллективной работой. Она направлена на профессионально-педагогическое...
Методическая разработка предназначена для использования в качестве пособия при выполнении контрольной работы и способствует приобретению...
Олимпийская смена для школьников 11-13 лет в международном языковом лагере “English non-stop 2013”
Языковая олимпиада по английскому языку для школьников старших классов Language Link, 1 место по спб
На страницах 3 и 7 находится несколько фотографий, сделанных в англоязычных странах