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Hardly a week goes by without some advance in technology that would have seemed incredible 50 years ago. Over the past 20 years computers have completely revolutionized our life. Yet we can expect the next 25 years will see as many changes as have been witnessed in the past 150.
Personal computers or simply PCs are a common feature of our life. We use them to do some calculations or prepare a text; we turn to them to present data with the help of graphs or diagrams, or just to relax playing some computer games.
Do you know anything about the Fantasy X22? The Fantasy X22 is a desktop computer. It has a desk drive and a colour monitor. The dimension of the monitor is 14 inches. The main feature of the Fantasy X22 is that it comes with a printer for word processing. The Fantasy X22 is really good and has many advantages. It is compatible with most other machines. There are many programs available for it. They are listed in the catalogue. It has two floppy disk drivers: for 3.5 inch disks and 5.14 inch disks. CD ROM is also available if necessary. The computer has a keyboard of 101 keys. The hard disk has 840 megabyte memory space. The computer has 640K of base memory and eight Mg extend memory.
Artificial intelligent researchers are already working with emotional machines and computers that could become conscious of their surroundings and of themselves. One of the most ambitious of these projects is a talking robot designed in human form that will be capable of exploring the world through sight, sound and touch. The project team hopes that this robot will be able to discover the world the way a human baby does, and will thus come to understand things as a child does.
How would we tell if a computer developed a soul? It might not be enough for a computer to look, behave and think like a human. It might also involve a more computer definition, such as the possession of a sense of moral responsibility, or sense. Of course, a sense of moral responsibility could be programmed into a computer. But what if a computer were to develop its own morality and conscience! What would that be like?
Options fall between two extremes. Many people want to draw an unbreakable divide between humans and machines insisting that however good a computer might become it could never have a soul. On the other hand, some researchers of artificial intelligence insist that humans are just complex machines, so why wouldn’t computers also have a soul
Do Translating Machines Exist?
Translating machines have been built many times. None of them however has done its job well enough to be put into practical use. However, research on translating machines has gone on continuously since the birth of the electronic computer in the late 1940s. Electronic computers are the only kind of machine with which one could hope to translate one language into another. Most attempts to do so have used general-purpose computers; the problem, then, is to write programmes, or lists of instructions, which will enable the computer to carry out the many logical processes involved in translating.
Let us suppose that we have a Russian text to be translated into English, and it is in a form which the machine can read – it might be on paper tape with holes punched in it. The first step in the translation process is for the machine to “look up” each Russian word in its own internal dictionary. Of course, merely substituting an equivalent English word doesn’t produce an intelligible translation. The machine has to know something about grammar in order to analyze the relations between the words of each Russian sentence and then construct a corresponding English sentence. Machines which can do this with various languages have been built in several countries. However, the resulting “translations” have sometimes been bad. The most common problem is where a word could mean either of two different things. A human translator would know which meaning to choose, from the context. But the machines very often make the wrong choice.
по английскому языку № 1, 2, 3, 4 (варианты 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
для студентов I-II курсов заочного факультета
по английскому языку
Составитель Н.А. Андрюхова
Технический редактор Г.В. Комарова
Подписано в печать 13.04.09
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Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 37 С – 29
Редакционно-издательский центр ТГТУ
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